Look scale shades below, created by means of cross shading, it is executed by different pencils (different softness) and distance between parallel straight lines variously.
The first three options are executed by a pencil 2H, thus lines from each other are far apart, it gives a light shade. The gradation of light is created by different extent of pressing a pencil and different proximity of lines. The following two options are executed by NV pencil, light of tone becomes more dark and the distance between lines has to be closer, than in the previous options. The pencil 2B executed options 6 and 7. The following two options of shading are executed by a pencil 4B, thus lines are located so close that is not visible papers. And the latest option is executed by a pencil 6B, it is the most dark shade. Try to draw this scale of shades.
Now try to create shades from the most dark to lighter tones.
On the picture options of cross shading by means of which it is possible to create various textures are shown below.
Now we have idea of tones separately and now our task to create tone transition — a gradient. We already considered a gradient by method of curls, simple shading, now we should learn to create a gradient by means of cross shading.
Here we see a scale which was considered above, by means of pencils of different softness from 2H to 6B now, pressing a pencil and distances between straight lines try to create a gradient. The same principle, as at creation of a simple gradient.
Options of gradient shading on softness of a pencil, i.e. one scale is executed by a pencil of the softness specified on the picture.
Now we will pass to practice. L — designates light sites, D - dark and N — white area.
Pencil 2H we create gradient shading in area L, lines have to be (relative) far apart and tone light.
Pencil of NV we create a shade round forms.
Pencil of HB and 2B we create smooth transitions to L and N areas. 4B we shade with a pencil area D.
We create smooth transition of a form.